These are My Writing Compositions
These are some of my writing compositions when I was still taking Writing III in the fourth semester… Hhm, go check the mistakes then, hehe…
The Teaching of English as A Foreign Language
in Listening Skill
by Endah Wijayanti
Listening is one of the important and fundamental skills in learning English. This is an ability to identify and to understand what others are saying. For a student whom English is his foreign language, he will need some help to improve his listening ability especially from his English teacher. Also, as an English teacher must realize to help her/his learners to acquaire this skill in appropriate ways. He/she should firstly find some great ways in teaching English to improve students’ speaking skill well. The process of teaching listening, in teaching English as a foreign language, can be divided into four stages, in terms of building knowledge of the field (BKOF), modelling of the text (MOT), joint construction of the text (JCOT), and independent construction of the text (ICOT).
Firstly, building knowledge of the field in listening. This stage, as pre-listening, the teacher will give the purpose and a clear explanation what the students are going to do in order to improve their listening skill. The teacher will open the class activity by greeting and offering a few questions dealing with the topic and also about the daily life. Also, the teacher will introduce the listening materials that will be given to the students. As an introduction before starting the listening English section, the teacher must give something interesting to attract the students’ attention. So, the students will be motivated more to enlarge their listening skill.
Secondly, modelling of the text in teaching listening skill. As the stage which is done during the listening process, the teacher will ilustrate and play some models of dialogue. The students will listen to some records from radio cassettes or CDs which are played by the teacher. The teacher will play the records several times. Then, the teacher will ask some questions related to the records they have listened. The students are expected to answer the questions well. After that, the teacher and the students can discuss together about the topic they have listened to.
Thirdly, joint construction of the text in the process of teaching listening. During the listening process, the teacher is going to ask the students to do some exercises. The teacher will play other records and ask the students to work in pairs or in groups. After playing the records, the students are asked by the teacher to discuss with their friends about the conversation or the passage they listened from the records. By giving some questions to the students, it will assist them being more understand what ideas or topics from the records they have listened to. Afterward, the teacher will ask each group to present their answers.
Lastly, independent construction of the text as post-listening process. In this last stage, the teacher will play another records which is more difficult than before. The students will work individually. They listen by themselves with the records playing by the teacher. After that, the students will discuss with other students. After discussing, the teacher will give a quiz to the students. The students must do the quiz individually to measure their own ability in listening English. That is the teacher’s responsibility to asses the answer. If the students’ results or scores are good, the teacher can continue to the higher level in the next meeting. But, if the result is not appropriate with the teacher’s expectancy, the students must be given with another quiz still in the same level.
Teaching English as a foreign language is not easy, including teaching listening. The teacher must use those four stages in order to improve students’ ability in listening. Through BKOF, MOT, JCOT, and ICOT, the teacher will be able to transfer his/her understanding about listening skill in English to his/her students. Related to those four stages, implied that learning English should be done through each step orderly.
English As International Language Should Be Mastered
by All People In The World
by Endah Wijayanti
Language is one of the most important needs for human beings. People from each country use at least one language to communicate with others. People who live in Indonesia, for example, use Indonesian language as their national language and sometimes they use the local vernacular like Javanese, Sundanese, Bataknese and so many others. Besides using national language with others, there is an international language which is always used by all people over the world. Each country surely uses English as the international language, including Indonesia. English as international language should be mastered by people entire the world. No matter what some people think that English is a difficult language to learn, there are several advantages of mastering English as international language in terms of understanding a lot of literature which is written in English, communicating with people all over the world easier, and having an opportunity to be a good English teacher.
The first advantage mastering English as international language is we can understand a lot of literature which is written in English easier. Nowadays, there are still a lot of literature spread out in the library and also internet in English. For example, when Indonesian college students find some science literature, it is possible they find literature from foreign countries that is using English as the main language. Students who have mastered in English will understand the literature they found easily. Also, it will shorten their time in spite of using dictionary to translate English into Indonesian language.
Besides understanding English literature much easier, another advantage of mastering English is we can communicate with people all over the world easily. We cannot deny that people from all parts of the world mostly can communicate with English, of course because English is international language. For instance, as Indonesian students who have willingness to travel around the world, they will need English to make their communication with foreigners much easier. By mastering English they will minimize some misunderstandings with foreigners in communication or chatting together.
Not only understanding English literature and communicating with people entire the world easily, having an opportunity to be a good English teacher is one of the advantages mastering English as international language. One skill to be a good English teacher is having self-awareness that mastering English is the most qualification to teach English as international language effectively. For example, teachers who are not native speakers from English speaking countries, it is not a big deal for them if they have already mastered in English while they teach this subject to their students. To be good English teachers, besides mastering English as a must, they should attract their students and motivate them that English is very useful in daily life.
English as international language is not supposed to be taken as a big problem. That is because there are several advantages provided by mastering English as the international language such as understanding a lot of English literature, communicating with people all over the world much easier, and having a great opportunity to be a good English teacher. So, English as international language can be very challenging for people all over the world to master.
The Teaching of English in Private and Public Schools
“What Happened There?”
by Endah Wijayanti
There is a place when teaching and learning activities are needed. This is a place where knowledge is the most valuable thing which people really need it. Who is coming there will meet the greatest teachers and friendly friends. Not only in the public ones but also in the private ones. We must be thought the same thing that the place is called a school. In a school, teaching activity cannot be dissociated with the teachers and the students. Especially, the teaching of English as one of the teaching activities happening in public and private schools. There are several similarities between teaching English in public and private schools, also there are some differences between them.
The first similarity in teaching English in public and private schools is the activities. There are several activities in teaching English which are done by them. Those activities are speaking, listening, reading, and writing. All students who learn English must do all of those activities to study English, though they are from public schools or private schools. Moreover, the English teachers need to do those activities to teach their students about English noticeably. There are no differences doing speaking, listening, reading, and writing in teaching English in public and private schools because it is a must to study and master English well.
The second similarity is the materials in the process of teaching English. The public and private schools need to use some materials to teach English, such as English books, dictionaries, English magazines, and English newspapers. Both public and private schools surely involve those materials to make teaching English activity proficiently. By using those appropriate materials will help the students not only from private but also public schools whose their first language is not English are assisted to understand English easily.
The third similarity between public and private schools is the practical teaching methods that they use. They will have the same practical methods as role play, drama, quizzes, and games in teaching English. Those methods are always practiced and given by the teachers to the students while in the class or outside the class. The public and private schools surely apply those same practical teaching methods in order to make learning English more fascinating and cheerful.
Besides of those similarities above, there are several differences between teaching English in public and private schools. Some differences between public and private schools that will be shown are the teaching facilities provider, the classes size, and the materials.
A public school can be defined as a free local school controlled and paid by the government. Teaching English in public schools is also supported by the government. Even though it will make this school depends on the government, this school usually has complete facilities in order to make teaching activity much more efficient. Also, the public school has large classes that can support the English teachers teaching English to the students. The students who are studying in large classes will feel comfortable and enjoyable studying English there. The government who provides all teaching materials can be the most responsible one that make teaching activity, particularly in teaching English, delivers many advantages.
Different from the definition of a public school, a private school is a school that is not supported by government money, where education must be paid by the students’ parents. Unlike the public school, the private school does not rely on the government. On the other hand, the private school provides the facilities of teaching (in this case is teaching English) by itself. The private school can be identified as a self-supporting school. Sometimes, the private schoo doesn’t have very complete teaching facilities. While the public school has large classes, the private school usually has small classes in daily teaching English. Uncomplete facilities or teaching materials can befall some difficulties for the teachers and the students in learning and teaching activity, especially teaching English as a second or a foreign language.
Teaching English in public and private schools has several similarities and also some differences. Each school has its own excellence and weaknesses in terms of teaching English in that school. Every school has its own characters to build and support teaching English in order to make English as the subject in the school more efficient and useful for the learners. Furthermore, knowing a little similarities and differences between teaching English in public and private schools can make us open-minded people and always try to dig much more about what happened in teaching English in public and private schools.
The Three Types of Research in Theses Written by
S-1 Students of English Department of
State University of Malang
by Endah Wijayanti
College students have some responsibilities during their study in their universities. For some collegians that is not easy to fulfill all of their obligations, including writing a thesis. Writing a thesis is the most important part to terminate studying from a university. College students from English Department are also facing the same duty. Writing a thesis is a must for them. Some angles can be taken from any classification in writing a thesis. The theses written by S-1 students of English Department of State University of Malang can be classified based on the type of research, the three of other several categories are classroom action research, experimental research, and case study research.
The first category is classroom action research used by S-1 students of English Department of State University of Malang in their theses. Classroom action research can be defined through using media in order to improve English ability. The researchers using some media in their writing theses process. An example is narrative scaffolds as the media of writing used to improve English writing skill. This media is very helpful for students to be encouraged in writing and understanding narrative writings in a fun way. This media is used and had been written by Nada Yangrifqi in her thesis, Using a Narrative Scaffold to Improve students’ EFL Writing Ability in SMA N 1 Gambiran, Banyuwangi. Another example is using journal writings written by Ema Aji Sulistyani. In her thesis, Employing Response Journal Writing Strategy to Improve Students’s Writing Skills at The First Year of SMP Negeri 08 Malang, she wrote that journal writings can be employed to improve students writing skills. Those media are media of writing and there are still other media to improve English ability in speaking, listening, and reading.
The second category is experimental research used in theses written by some other S-1 students of State University of Malang. Experimental research is done through methods in order to improve English ability. In a thesis titled The Implementation of Experiental Learning to Improve The Ability of Eight Graders of SMPN 1 Singosari In Writing written by Neni Febrie Novitasari, stated that Experiental Learning is a method that can be used to increase the writing ability. Experiental Learning is very helpful for the students in developing ideas in composing because they can tell “what happened” since they write something based on their experience. Cahyani (2005) states that Experiental Learning is a teaching-learning method that activates the learners to build knowledge and skill through direct experiences. Another thesis is written by Idha Zauharin, The Implementation of Contextual Teaching and Learning, using a different medium through her research. She used Contextual Teaching Learning to connect the students with their knowledge and experience to their lives as a member of society. A definition about Contextual Teaching Learning (CTL) also stated in her thesis that CTL is an approach to teaching and learning which helps the teachers to relate his teaching materials and activities to the real experience.
The last category is case study research which is usually used by English Department students’ in writing theses. According to Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, case study is a detailed account of the development of a particular person, group, or situation that has been studied over a period of time. So, the researchers find a case in a school and they will observe what happened there knowing the development detail year to year. Abdul Kadir Mubarak in his thesis, Affective Aspects of Students Towards English: A Comprehensive Survey of The Students of Two Elementary School in Palu, using a case study as the type of design. In this case the students were observed during the class, questioned, and interviewed. Also, the teachers develop the affective aspects through receiving, responding, valuing, organization, and characterization by a value during the teaching and learning process. The other thesis titled The Teaching of English at SMPN 1 Malang as An International Standard School: A Case Study written by Arina nugrahani also using case study in her research. This study was intended to describe the teaching and learning process of English In The International Standard Classes at SMP 1 Malang. The researcher was supported by some instruments, there are passive participation observation technique, interview, and questionaires.
The theses that have been classified in terms of the type of research is not only the one to classify those theses written by S-1 students of English Department of State University of Malang. Besides those three categories above, classroom action research, experimental research, and case study research, there are still other categories that can be found in other theses. A college student who wants to finish his/her last duty, writing a thesis, should not worry to discover something new in writing a thesis from other classifications.
A Fear of Studying English
by Endah Wijayanti
For some students studying English is a fun activity whereas others think that studying English is very horrifying. Some students might be runaway when they know that their first lesson in their first day in school is English. As an English teacher, it is really important to know what factors that caused that phenomenon. There are three factors that caused some students afraid of studying English, in terms of the lack of students’ willingnes to study English, the lack of students’ acquaintance about the advantages of mastering English, and the lack of teachers’ interesting ways in teaching English.
Some students have a lack of willingness to study English because they think that English is terrifying and hard to be mastered. Since the students thought that English is a very complicated subject, they would not have a strong desire to learn English well. Some students will get their first impression that English is hard to master when they have faced their first difiiculty in learning English and could not find the correct solution or the proper answer. In other words, some students will lose their willingness just because of their wrong mind set about English itself.
There are still many students do not know what advantages they will get from mastering English well. They lack of acquaintance about the advantages of mastering English. Students who do not know the exact reasons why they have to study English will get under the stress. Besides, it will create a situation when the students are forced to study English and make them feel that studying English is intimidating. Although they keep studying English with a reason that it is a must as a subject to graduate from school or pass the examination, they will think the same that English is a lesson that must be avoided.
The third reason is students will afraid of studying English because of their teacher’s methods in teaching English. Some students will get bored easily when their teacher cannot create an interesting way in learning English. Moreover, if the teachers use some methods that make their students are afraid or feel threatening, the students will never be interested study English at all. Maybe this case is based on their teacher’s methods in learning English activity. If the teacher used a method that make the students depressed and could not create an enjoyable atmosphere for the students, the students would refuse to receive the lesson well. That will make the students are really afraid of studying English.
By knowing those factors that caused students are afraid of learning English, the English teacher can find the solutions to recover the problems. Not only those factors above caused some students avoid to study English but also still many other reasons caused them being intimidated in learning English. That is why an English teacher must be aware of those problems and create a good impression about studying English in a fun way.
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